Marzena Szugiero – Ph.D. student. She graduated from the Department of Polish Studies as well as the Institute of History at the University of Warsaw. She was also trained in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and Vilnius. Her main field of interest is the culture of Ashkenazi Jews in the 19th century, especially the ambiguous status of minhagim (‘customs’), varied forms of inventing and refutation of traditions. She is currently preparing her dissertation about the cultural ghetto in the collective imaginary, focusing on the case of the Kingdom of Poland (1845–1914). She is a member of the international research groups Pogroms. Anti-Jewish Collective Violence in the 19th and 20th centuries. History, Memory, Identity (2012–2015), funded by the National Program for the Development of Humanities.